Women are under-represented in top management positions on both sides of the Atlantic. The academic literature suggests a number of explanations for this underrepresentation, including self-selection, investment in family and child bearing, lower female human capital investment, or gender discrimination.[...] A new strand of research considers another hypothesis – that the sexes perform differently under competitive pressures, even if these differences do not exist in non-competitive settings.[...] Our recent work provides additional evidence from a series of natural experiments drawn from the French higher-education system where, contrary to tennis tournaments, men and women compete with each other, as is the case when they compete for top management positions.
Sorry, the actual paper is hidden behind a paywall. Stupid economists.Polymeme]